1. List the two dominant types of phytoplankton in the neritic zone.
2. Explain the seasonal succession of phytoplankton in the neritic zone of the temperate and polar oceans. (13-1)
3. List several types of zooplankton in the neritic zone, and give the dominant type. (Also see fig. 13-2)
4. Explain why the patchiness (uneven distribution) of plankton is beneficial to organisms in higher trophic levels.
5. Discuss the advantages of fish schooling.
6. Explain why the continental shelves can be divided into energy zones. (Also see fig. 13.5a)
7. List the two ways that bottom energy affects the benthos.
8. Explain why energy environments make it difficult for the establishment of epifaunal communities.
9. Give the relationship between particle size and bottom energy. (Also see fig. 13-5a)
10. Explain why high-energy benthic environments are dominated by filter feeders (Also see fig. 13-5b)
11. Describe the benthic community where the substrate is fine sand and coarse silt.
12. Explain why environments with a muddy substrate are dominated by detritus feeders.
13. Give the two major classes of benthic communities. (Also see fig. 13-6)
14. Explain why the largest region of the ocean, the open ocean, is sparsely populated.
15. Contrast the relative abundance of diatoms, dinoflagellates, and coccolithophores with increasing distance from the shoreline. (Also see fig. 13.7b)
16. Give the two dominate organisms in the oceanic pelagic zone that occupy the second trophic level (herbivores).
17. Give an organism that occupies the third trophic level of the in the oceanic pelagic zone feeds on radiolaria and foraminifera?
18. List some of the top predators in the oceanic pelagic. (Also see fig. 13-9)
19. List some of the organisms that inhabit the dysphotic region of the oceanic pelagic.
20. Explain why some deep-sea organisms have photophores and discuss how they use bioluminescence.
21. List some of the organisms that inhabit the aphotic region of the oceanic pelagic.
22. What colors are many of the animals in the aphotic zone?
23. Describe some of the adaptations of fish in the aphotic zone. (Also see fig. 13-10)
24. Give the primary environmental factor that resulted in the evolution of these adaptations.
The Deep-Sea Bottom
25. Explain why biomass decreases with increasing depth.
26. List the three primary sources of food for the deep-sea floor. (Also see fig. 13-11)
27. List the common traits of the deep-sea biota and explain why this traits evolved.
28. Give the primary cause of the low metabolic rates of the deep-sea biota. (Also see fig. 13-13)
29. Discuss anaerobic bacteria, chemosynthesis, and primary production in vent communities.